For both small and large concentrations, parts-per notation is a very convenient way to communicate numbers that would ordinarily have many zeros (either before or after a decimal point). For example, 3 ppt (parts per trillion) is much cleaner than reporting 0.000000000003. Additionally, it is important to distinguish what units are being described. Is it 3 particles per trillion particles? 3 grams per trillion grams? In other words, parts-per notation offers a unit-less ratio, and in scientific literature the true units are either directly stated or implied from context.
Fred. T. Perris (1837-1916) became the chief engineer and superintendent of construction of the California Southern Railway. A civil engineer, he also played a role in surveying and taking water measurements in San Bernardino and Los Angeles counties. The Lake Perris State Recreation Area and the city of Perris are named after him.
The Pit River is the longest tributary of the Sacramento River and largest river in northeast California. It connects to the Sacramento River at Shasta Lake and has headwaters at the confluence of its two tributaries – the North and South Forks.
Point sources release pollutants from discrete conveyances, such as a discharge pipe, and are regulated by federal and state agencies. The main point source dischargers are factories and sewage treatment plants, which release treated wastewater.
Carley V. Porter (1906-1972) was the longtime chairman of the California Legislature’s Assembly Committee on Water who has two historical and important water laws named after him. He was a Democrat from Compton in Los Angeles County and a teacher before being elected to the Assembly.
John Wesley Powell (1834-1902) was historic and heroic for being first to lead an expedition down the Colorado River in 1869. A major who lost an arm in the Civil War Battle of Shiloh, he was an explorer, geologist, geographer and ethnologist.
The construction of Glen Canyon Dam in 1964 created Lake Powell. Both are located in north-central Arizona near the Utah border. Lake Powell acts as a holding tank for outflow from the Colorado River Upper Basin States: Colorado, New Mexico, Utah and Wyoming.
The water stored in Lake Powell is used for recreation, power generation and delivering water to the Lower Basin states of California, Arizona, and New Mexico.
Prado Dam – built in 1941 in response to the Santa Ana River’s flood-prone past – separates the river into its upper and lower watersheds. After the devastation of the deadly Los Angeles Flood of 1938 that impacted much of Southern California, it became evident that flood protection was woefully inadequate, prompting the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to construct Prado Dam.
Prescriptive Rights are water use rights gained illicitly that evolve into a title. Typically this occurs with rights to chronically overdraftedgroundwater basins gained through trespass or unauthorized use.
In California, the California Supreme Court developed the doctrine of prescriptive rights in 1949.
Rooted in Roman law, the public trust doctrine recognizes the public right to many natural resources including “the air, running water, the sea and its shore.”
The public trust doctrine requires the sovereign, or state, to hold in trust designated resources for the benefit of the people. Traditionally, the public trust applied to commerce and fishing in navigable waters, but its uses were expanded in California in 1971 to include fish, wildlife, habitat and recreation.