When the population collapses, like it did between 2013 to 2016, the effects ripple across the ecosystem. Brown pelicans struggled to reproduce and those that did abandoned their chicks. Thousands of sea lion pups were found malnourished and dehydrated on California’s beaches. These effects may be exacerbated by humans, especially when high fishing rates remain when stocks are in decline. California anchovies are almost exclusively sold abroad as food for fish farms and bait for tuna.